Antidiabetic Activity of Hydromethanolic Leaf Extracts of Prosopis oblonga (Benth) in Normal and Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Authors

  • Akpe, G. C. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Author
  • Hassan, S. W. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Author
  • Abubakar, M. G. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Author
  • Aliero, A. A. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Author

Abstract

The hypoglycaemic and toxicological properties of the leaf extract of Prosopis oblonga, Benth were evaluated on normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic rats. The hypoglycaemic activity was evaluated in alloxan monohydrate-induced hyperglycaemic rats (80 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally). Phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponin-glycosides, cardiac-glycosides, steroids and volatile oils. The potency of the leaf extracts was compared with that of oral hypoglycaemic agent (Glibenclamide). Administered doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/Kg body weight of the leaf extract to diabetic rats, showed significant (P <0.05) reduction of blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner when compared with the control and the reference drug group. However, in normoglycaemic rats, a significant (P <0.05) reduction in blood glucose was also observed. This showed that the leaf extracts of the plant have a blood sugar lowering effect, though more significantly on diabetic rats. The lethal dosage (LD50) obtained was greater than 5000mg/kg. These results suggest that the leaf extract is relatively safe and could be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abbiw, D. (1990). Useful plants of Ghana. Intermediate Technology Publication and the Royal Botanical Bardins Kew. pp. 367- 89.

American Society for Testing and Materials (1987).Standard test method for estimating Acute Oral Toxicity in Rats. American Society for Testing and Materials E. 116387, Philadelphia U.S.A.

Antia, B. S., Okokon, J. E. and Okon, P. A. (2005). Hypoglacaemic activities of aqueous extract of Persea Americana Mill. Journal of Pharmacology. 37: 325- 326.

Andrew, J. K. (2000). Diabetes. Churchill Livingstone New-York. pp. 365

Atawodi, S. E. and Ogunbosola, F. (2009). Evaluation of antitrypanasomal properties of

extracts of leaves, stem and root barks of Prosopis africana in laboratory animals. Biokemistri. 21(2):101-108.

Balkau, B., Charles, M. A. and Eschawege, E. (2000). Epidemiological discourse on new criteria on diabetes. Molecular Endocrinology 2: 229-234.

Barar, F. S. K. (2004). Essentials of Pharcotherapeutics. 3rd ed. S Chand and Company Ltd. New Delhi. pp 279-298.

Barham, D. and Trinder, D. (1972). An improved colour reagent for the determination of blood glucose by the oxidase system. The Analyst 97: 142 - 146

Barrette-Conner, E. L., Cohn, B. A., Wingard D. L. and Edestein, S. L. (1991). Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger risk factor for Fatal Ischaemic Heart Disease in Women than in men? The Ramcho Bernado Study. Journal of American Medical Association 265: 627-631.

Bruce, R. D. (1985). An up- and – down procedure for acute Toxicity Testing. Fundam. Applied Toxicology 5: 151-157.

Bruce, R. D. (1987). A confimatory study of up- and – down method of Acute Oral Toxicity Testing. Fundamental Applied Toxicology. 8: 97-100.

Burstein, M., Scholnick, A., Morin, R. (1979). Rapid method for iIsolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipation with Polyanions. Journal of Lipid Research 11:583-595.

Bunyapraphatsara, N., Yongchaiyudha, S., Rungpitarangsi, V. and Chokechaijaroenporn, O. (1996). Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomedicine 3: 245-248.

Chattopardyhay, R. B. (2004). Effect of Azadiracta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile change in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research 8: 101-104.

Christopherson, B. C. (1991). Traditional Medicine. A Potential Resource Exploitation of Natural Products. The H-C Qrte Institute, Copenhagen. pp. 8- 12.

Dheer, R. and Bhatnagar, P. (2010). A Study of the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitis Linn. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 42: 70- 73.

Dixon, W. J. (1991). Staricase Bioassay. The up- and - down method. Neuroscience & Behaviour Review 15: 47-50.

Djomeni, D. D. Teddong, L. Asongalem, E. A., Dino T., Soken, S. D. and Kamtchouing, P. (2006). Hypoglycameic and anti-diabetic effects of root extract of Ceiba pentabdra in normal and diabetic rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3 (1): 129-136.

Edwin, E. S., Heeja, E., Gupta, V. B. and Jain, D. C. (2006). Fight diabetes the herbal way. Express Pharmaceutical Review. 1:41- 42.

El-Olemyl, M. M., Al-Muhtadi, F. J. and Afifi, A. A. (1994). Experimental Phytochemistry. A Laboratory Manual. College of Pharmacy, King Saud University Pres UK, pp: 1-34.

Farnsworth, N. R. and Bingel, A. S. (1977). In: Wager, H and Wolf P. (eds.) New Natural Products and Plant Drugs with Pharmacological, Biological and Therapeutical Activity. Springer – Verlage, New York. pp. 678- 684.

Friedewald, W., Levy, R. and Fredrickson, D. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein. cholesterol in plasma without use of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry. 18: 499-509.

Gornal, A. G., Bardwill, G. S. and David, M. (1949). Determination of serum proteins by means of Biuret reactions. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 177: 751-766.

Gupta, S. A. and Seth, C. B. (1962). Effects of Momordica charantia on glucose tolerance on albino rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 7: 240-244.

Harborne, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis 3rd edition. Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 475.

Henry, R. J. (1974). Determination of serum creatinine. In: Clinical Chemistry: Harper and Row, pp. 525.

Hong, T. D., Linington, S. and Ellis, R. H. (1996). Seed storage Behaviour. A Compendium handbooks for gene banks, No. 41 PGRI.

Katende, A. B. (1995). Useful trees and shrubs for Uganda, Identification propagation and management for Agricultural and personal communities Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSLU) Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA). pp. 145.

Lee-Rodkly, F. (1964). Binding of bromocresol green by human serum albumin. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 108:510-513.

Marles, R. J. and Farnsworth, N. (1996). Antidiabetic plants and their active constituents: an update. Prot. Journal of Botany & Medicine. 1:135.

Mayers, N. (1982). Readers Digest. Vol 121, No 223. Readers Digest Association Inc. USA. pp. 24- 128.

Morin, L. G. and Prox, J. (1973). Quantitative determination of uric acid in serum. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 60(5): 690-694.

Murray, M. (2000). Encyclopedia of National Medicine 2nd Edition. Prima Health Publishing Rockling, USA. pp. 401.

OECD. (1995). Repeated Dose, 28 days oral toxicity studies in rodents. In: Guidance document for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals. Ornamental monographs No 76.

OECD. (2000). Guidance Document on Acute Oral Toxicity Environmental Health and Safety Monograph on Testing and Assessment. No 24.

OECD. (2001). Guidelines for testing chemical, Acute Oral toxicities up and down procedure 425: 1-26.

Ogbonnia, S. O., Odimegwu, J. I. and Enwuru, V. N. (2008). Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolidaemic effects of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Treculia africana, Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lan and their mixture on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7(6): 2535-2539.

Ojo, O. O., Nadro, M. S. and Tella, I. O. (2006). Protection of rats by extracts of some common Nigerian trees against acetaminophen-induced hepatoxicity. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9: 755-760.

Okide, G. B., Udoh, U. E. and Ezugu, C. O. (2004). Hypoglycaemic activity of the Prosopis africana seed. Journal of Tropical Medicine, Plants 4 (1): 51-56.

Okoli, C. O., Ibiam, A. F., Ezike, A. C., Akah, P. A. and Okoye, Z. C. (2010). Evaluation of anti-diabetic potentials of Phyllanthus nitiri in alloxan diabetic rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9: 245-259.

Oladele, S. B., Ayo, J. O. and Adaudi, A. O. (1995). Medicinal and physiological properties of flavonoids, coumarins and anthraquinones of plant origin. West African Journal of Pharmacology and drug Research. 11: 134-144.

Onaogbe, I. O., Ebhota, A. O., Udegbe, H. C., Omondia, E., Edeni, D. and Egengbo, S. O. (1999). Assessment of some medicinal plant for hypoglycaemic activities in rats and rabbits. Bioscience Research Communication 11(12): 795-807.

Rama, M. V. and Narasimham, P. (1993). Fruits of the Solanacea in encyclopedia of food science. Food Technology and Nutrition 6: 3677- 3682.

Rang, M., Daniel, S. F. and Robert, S. B. (1999). Oral antidiabetic therapies for type 2 diabetes. American Alternative Medicine 137: 262-296.

Ranjna, C. (1999). Practical Clinical Biochemistry Methods and Interpretation 2nd edition. Academy Press. pp. 200- 240.

Rathod, N. R., Raghuveer, I., Chotine, H. R. and Chanda, R. (2009). Free radical scavenging activity of Calotropis gigamtea on streptozoticin induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 71: 615-621.

Reitman, S. and Frankel, S. (1957). Colorimetric method for the determination of serum transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 28: 56-61.

Rec, G. S. C. C. (1972). Optimised standard colorimetric methods (Serum alkaline phosphatase). Journal Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry 10: 182.

Saidu. Y., Lawal, M., Isezuo, S. A., Shehu, R. A., Sahabi, D. M. and Bilbis, L. S. (2007). Partial purification and elucidation of mechanism of hypoglycaemic agents of aqueous leaf extract of Albizza chevalieri Harms (Leguminosae). Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2(6): 513-523.

Shrabana, C., Tuhin, K. B., Begum, R., Liaquat, A., Mosihuzzamam, M., Nilufer, N., Azad, K. A. and Biwapat M. (2003). Advanced studies on the hypoglycaemic effect of Caesalpina bonducella F in type 1 and 2 diabetes in long Evans rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 84: 41-46.

Sofowora, E. A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. John Willey and Sons, New York. pp. 93- 106.

Sudheesh, S., Manital, V. B. and Vijayalakshmi, N. R. (2005). Potential health promoting effects of flavonoids: A comparative study on hypolipidaemic and hypoglcaemic activities. In: Abstract of Posters, final programme and book of abstract, 53rd Annual meeting of the society medical plant research (GA) and joint congress with the Italian society of photochemistry (SIF), Florence Italy. pp. 179.

Tanko, Y., Okasha, M. A., Magaji, G. M., Yerima, M., Yaro, A. H., Saleh, M. I. A. and Mohammed, A. (2008). Anitdiabetic properties of Secureinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(1): 22-24.

Trinder, P. (1969). Determination of total cholesterol. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 6: 24-27.

Trease, G. E. and Evans, W. C. (1999). Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 14th ed. W. B. Saunders Ltd. London. pp. 341- 344.

Vogt, K. (1995). A Field Guide to the Identification Propagation and Uses of Common Trees and Shrubs of Dry Land. SUDAN. SOS (Sahel of Savannan). pp. 67-80.

Wambebe, K.., Gamaniel, J. E., Awodogun, A. C. and Okogun, J. I. (1996). Acute and short term toxicity of Niprissan in rats: A Biochemical Study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 1: 36- 49.

WHO. (1999). Diabetes mellitus fact sheet Number 138 and 236 Geneva.

Wilson, P. W., Agostino, R. B., Levy, D., Belanger, A. M., Silvershatz, H. and Kannel, W. B. (1998). Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease. American Journal of Kidney Disease 32: 589-595.

Wybenga, D. R. D., Glorgia, J. M. and Pileggi, V. J. (1971). Determination of serum urea by diacetyl monoxime method. Clincial Chemistry 17: 891- 895.

Published

2013-12-30

How to Cite

Antidiabetic Activity of Hydromethanolic Leaf Extracts of Prosopis oblonga (Benth) in Normal and Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats. (2013). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 28(1&amp;2), 22-34. https://www.nsbmb.org.ng/journals/index.php/njbmb/article/view/312