Correlation of Estimated Average Glucose with Single Point Glucose Values in Patients Attending a Clinical Laboratory Facility in South-Western Nigeria: A Retrospective Study


  • Olabisi T. Bamidele Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria Author
  • Stanley I.R. Okoduwa Department of Biochemistry, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria Author
  • Olanrewaju E. Olasehinde Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria Author
  • Ngozi E. Okonkwo Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria Author
  • Frank C. Ibeaja Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria Author
  • Ayomide Faleye Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria Author
  • Olatunde A. Olayanju Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria Author


Fasting Plasma Glucose, HbA1c, Estimated Average Glucose, Diabetes, Impaired Fasting Glucose, Glycaemic control


Regular monitoring of glycaemic levels in patients with diabetes mellitus forms a major fulcrum for ensuring a desirable treatment outcome and a good quality of life in affected individuals. Glycated haemoglobin(HbA1c) measurement is a common and dependable option for determining long-term glycaemic control. Unfortunately, it is relatively expensive and not readily available in most low-income settings. Measuring fasting plasma glucose(FPG) is the cheaper alternative if it correlates with HbA1c. A retrospective study into clinical records to identify all patients who had HbA1c and FPG was conducted on the same day between January2021 and July2022. Estimated average glucose was calculated from the HbA1c and the values were correlated with the FPG. Factors predicting values for HbA1c were also determined. The results obtained showed that a total of 315 patients had clinical records required for the study, 147(46.7%) males and 168 (53.3%) females. They were grouped into diabetic (n=111, with median FPG of 155mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (n=67, with median FPG of 108mg/dL) and non-diabetic (n=137, with median FPG of 92mg/dL) participants. The estimated average glucose for the three groups was 160mg/dL, 117 mg/dL and 112 mg/dL, respectively. The FPG of the diabetic group showed a moderate correlation with the estimated average glucose (0.630 and a p-value<0.001), and factors which predicted a high HbA1c were increasing age, FPG and the presence of diabetes mellitus. This data further encourages the continued use of FPG in monitoring glycaemic control in diabetic patients, especially in resource-poor locations where HbA1c is either too expensive or unavailable.


Download data is not yet available.


Adams, O., M. Shabi, O., Kolade Akinola, B., E. Gabriel, O., S. Bello, I., and Akinpelu, O. (2021). The role of diabetes self-care education and practice in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Family Medicine and Primary Care Review, 23(4): 391–399.

Adeniyi, A. F., Uloko, A. E., Ogwumike, O. O., Sanya, A. O., and Fasanmade, A. A. (2013). Time course of improvement of metabolic parameters after a 12-week physical exercise programme in patients with type 2 diabetes: the influence of gender in a Nigerian population. BioMed Research International, 2013: 1–9.

Aliyu, R., Zainab, M., Sani, M., Ibrahim, D., and Andrew, E. (2019). Should we assume accuracy of point of care glucose meters? An observation from a tertiary health care centre. Nigerian Journal of Medicine, 28(2):133-137

Balogun, W., Onasanya, A., and Azeez, T. (2020). Prevalence and clinical characteristics of Nigerian patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes. Nigerian Journal of Medicine, 29(1): 49-54.

Chehregosha, H., Khamseh, M. E., Malek, M., Hosseinpanah, F., and Ismail-Beigi, F. (2019). A view beyond HbA1c: Role of continuous glucose monitoring. Diabetes Therapy, 10(3): 853–863.

ElSayed, N. A., Aleppo, G., Aroda, V. R., Bannuru, R. R., Brown, F. M., Bruemmer, D., Collins, B. S., Gaglia, J. L., Hilliard, M. E., Isaacs, D., Johnson, E. L., Kahan, S., Khunti, K., Leon, J., Lyons, S. K., Perry, M. L., Prahalad, P., Pratley, R. E., Seley, J. J., Gabbay, R. A. (2022). Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Standards of care in diabetes-2023. Diabetes Care, 46(S1): S19–S40.

Hodel, N. C., Hamad, A., Reither, K., Mwangoka, G., Kasella, I., Praehauser, C., Abdulla, S., Hatz, C. F. R., and Mayr, M. (2020). Assessment of diabetes and prediabetes prevalence and predictors by HbA1c in a population from sub-Saharan Africa with a high proportion of anemia: a prospective cross-sectional study. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 8(1): e000939.

Iwuala, S., Olamoyegun, M., Sabir, A., and Fasanmade, O. (2015). The relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and glycaemic control among patients attending an urban diabetes clinic in Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine, 14(4):182-187.

Jang, J. Y., Moon, S., Cho, S., Cho, K. H., and Oh, C. M. (2019, February 4). Visit-to-visit HbA1c and glucose variability and the risks of macrovascular and microvascular events in the general population. Scientific Reports: 9(1).

Kariyawasan, C. C., Balasuriya, B. L. T., Ranatunga, S. A. C. D., Dissanayake, D. M. C., and Herath, S. R. G. P. (2021). The Association between Hba1c- derived estimated average glucose (Eag) with fasting blood sugar (FBS) and post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) in patients with Type 2 diabetes in a cohort of patients in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 3(2): 117–121.

Karnchanasorn, R., Huang, J., Ou, H. Y., Feng, W., Chuang, L. M., Chiu, K. C., and Samoa, R. (2016). Comparison of the current diagnostic criterion of HbA1c with fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentration. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016:1–11.

Khosla, L., Bhat, S., Fullington, L. A., and Horlyck-Romanovsky, M. F. (2021). HbA1c performance in African descent populations in the United States with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or diabetes: A scoping review. Preventing Chronic Disease:18.

Kone, N., Cassim, N., Maposa, I., and George, J. A. (2023). Diabetic control and compliance using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) testing guidelines in public healthcare facilities of Gauteng province, South Africa. PLoS One, 18(8): e0278789.

Masuch, A., Friedrich, N., Roth, J., Nauck, M., Müller, U. A., and Petersmann, A. (2019). Preventing misdiagnosis of diabetes in the elderly: age-dependent HbA1c reference intervals derived from two population-based study cohorts. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 19(1): 1-10

Miller, K. M., Beck, R. W., Foster, N. C., and Maahs, D. M. (2020). HbA1c levels in Type 1 Diabetes from early childhood to older adults: A deeper dive into the influence of technology and socioeconomic status on HbA1c in the T1D exchange clinic registry findings. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, 22(9):645–650.

Mustafa, I. O., Tanko, Y., and Yusuf, R. (2023). Gender disparity in the management of diabetes among residents of Sabon Gari Local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Diagnosis and Case Reports, 4(1):2–3.

Nkpozi, M., Jumbo, A. C., Unamba, N., Unachukwu, C., and Chinenye, S. (2019). Self-monitoring of blood glucose practices by people living with diabetes who use their personal glucometers in Port Harcourt, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Internet Journal of Medical Update - eJournal, 13(2): 3-9.

Nolen, L. (2019). Diabetes diagnosis and monitoring: On a variety of lab and POC platforms, HbA1c testing is playing an increasingly important role. Clinical Laboratory Products, 49(5): 14-20.

Olamoyegun, M., Enikuomehin, A., Ojo, O., Ajani, G., Akinlade, T., and Ala, O. (2021). Pattern of self-care practices among type 2 diabetes patients in Southwest, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 24(7):978-985.

Siddiqui, S., Zainal, H., Harun, S. N., and Ghadzi, S. M. S. (2020). Diet quality and its association with glycemic parameters in different diabetes progression stages. A cross-sectional questionnaire study at a primary care clinic. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 39: 165–172.

Sriwimol, W., Choosongsang, P., Choosongsang, P., Petkliang, W., and Treerut, P. (2022). Associations between HbA1c-derived estimated average glucose and fasting plasma glucose in patients with normal and abnormal hemoglobin patterns. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 82(3): 192–198.

Tandon, N., Das, A., Mohan, V., Joshi, S., Shah, S., Zargar, A., Kalra, S., Unnikrishnan, A., Kumar, A., and Mithal, A. (2021). Impact India: A novel approach for optimum diabetes care. Journal of Diabetology, 12(3):239-245.

Tran, N. K., LaValley, C., Bagley, B., and Rodrigo, J. (2023). Point of care blood glucose devices in the hospital setting. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 60(4):290–299.

Uloko, A. E., Musa, B. M., Ramalan, M. A., Gezawa, I. D., Puepet, F. H., Uloko, A. T., Borodo, M. M., and Sada, K. B. (2018, May 14). Prevalence and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Therapy, 9(3): 1307–1316.

Wang, X., Luo, J. F., Qi, L., Long, Q., Guo, J., and Wang, H. H. (2019). Adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: current status and influential factors based on electronic questionnaires. Patient Preference and Adherence, 13:1269–1282.

Williams, A., Greene, N., and Kimbro, K. (2020). Increased circulating cytokine levels in African American women with obesity and elevated HbA1c. Cytokine, 128:154989



How to Cite

Correlation of Estimated Average Glucose with Single Point Glucose Values in Patients Attending a Clinical Laboratory Facility in South-Western Nigeria: A Retrospective Study. (2023). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 38(3), 139-146.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 78

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.