Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Potentials of the Extracts and Fraction of the Leaf of Datura metel (Lnn.)



This study evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the leaf extracts of Datura metel with a view to understanding the mode of action of the extracts using plant model. The study involved collection, identification, authentication and preparation of methanol (ME) and aqueous extracts (AQE) of the plant. The methanol extract (ME) was partitioned with n-hexane and ethylacetate to yield ethylacetate fraction (EAF). Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the extracts and fraction as well as its effect on biochemical parameters were evaluated using Allium cepa assay technique. The extracts and fraction caused root growth inhibition, induced chromosomal abnormalities which include formation of sticky chromosomes, chromosome bridges, c-mitosis and other metaphase and anaphase disorders. Decrease in mitotic index, increase in chromosomal aberration and changes in biochemical parameters were observed. In conclusion, the ME, AQE and EAF of the leaves of D. metel exhibited growth inhibition, genotoxic and cytotoxic effects through the disruption of the structure of nucleic acid thereby blocking cell division and elongation which in turn could affect the growth of the plant.


Download data is not yet available.


Adachukwu, I. P. and Yusuf, O. N. (2014). A review of the ethnotherapeutics of medicinal plants used in traditional/alternative medicinal practice in Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Current Microbiology Applied Science, 3(1): 675-683.

Anjana, S. and John, E. T. (2013). Analysis of Cytotoxic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Pogostemon auricularius (L.) Hassk. using Allium cepa Root Tip Assay. International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences 2(5): 562-566.

Chandra, S. J., Sandhya, S., Vinod, K. R., David, B., Sudhakar, K. and Chaitanya, R. (2012). Plant toxins-useful and harmful effects. Journal for Drugs and Medicines, 4(1): 79-90.

Chikezie, P. C., Ibegbulem, C. O. and Mbagwu, F. N. (2015). Medicinal potentials and toxicity concerns of bioactive principles. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 4: 202-210.

Dragoeva, A. P., Koleva, V. P., Nanova, Z. D. and Georgiev, B. P. (2015). Allelopathic effects of Adonis vernalis l.: root growth inhibition and cytogenetic alterations. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 4: 48-55.

Ekanem, P. E., Abba, S. Sunday, D. S.and Nyaga, K. (2015). Selective Effects of Datura Metel on The Granular Parallel Fibres And Purkinje Cells of the Cerebellum in Wistar Rats. International Journal of Anatomy Research 3(4):1450-1455.

Fadoju, O. M., Osinowo, O. A., Ogunsuyi, O. I., Oyeyemi, I. T., Alabi, O. A., Alimba, C. G. and Bakare, A. A. (2020). Interaction of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles induced cytogenotoxicity in Allium cepa. Nucleus 1-8.

Fasaanu, O. P., Oziegbe, M. and Oyedapo, O. O. (2013). Investigations of activities of alkaloid of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum, (Kunth) Pax. Ife Journal of Science, 15 (2); 251-262.

Firbas, P. and Amon, T. (2013). Allium chromosome aberration test for evaluation effect of cleaning municipal water with constructed wetland (CW) in Sveti Tomaž, Slovenia. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation, 4(4): 1-5.

Ilbas, A. I., Gonen, U., Yilmaz, S. and Dadandi, M. Y. (2012). Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera gel extracts on Allium cepa root tip cells. Turk Journal of Botany, 36: 263-268.

Iwalokun, B. A., Oyenuga, A. O., Saibu, G. M. and Ayorinde, J. (2011). Analyses of cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of Loranthus micranthus using the Allium cepa test. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(5): 459-467.

Jyrwa, L. M., Shabong, D. N., Khongsngi, J. S. and Khongwir, S. (2014). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of a neem based pesticide, neemastra on meristemic cells of Allium cepa. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 5(11): 2141-2145.

Khanna, N. and Sharma, S. (2013). Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay: a review. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, 1(3): 105-119.

Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L. and Randall, R. J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193: 262−275.

Olorunfemi, D. I., Olomukoro, J. O. and Anani, O. A. (2015). Toxicity evaluation and cytogenetic screening of process water using a plant bioassay. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 23(1): 31-37.

Oyedapo, O. O. and Olalere, M. O. (1994). Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of yellow maize (Zea mays) seedlings: a deviation from basic principle. Biokemistri, 4(1): 41-44.

Pathak, A., Dwivedi, M., Laddha, N., Begum, R. and Joshi, A. (2013). DNA isolation from fresh leaf tissue of Tylophora indica and Bacopa monnieri. Environmental and Experimental Biology, 11: 69–71.

Rank, J. (2003). The method of Allium anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. Ekologija, 1: 38-42.

Salam, A. and Kato-Noguchi, H. (2010). Evaluation of allelopathic potential of neem (Azadirachta indica. a. juss) against seed germination and seedling growth of different test plant species. International Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2(2): 20-25.

Sayyed, A. and Shah, M. (2014). Phytochemistry, pharmacological and traditional uses of Datura stramonium L. review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(5): 123-125.

Schacterle, G. R. and Pollack, R. L. (1973). A simplified method for the quantitative assay of small amounts of protein in biological material. Analytical Biochemistry, 51: 654-655.

Zagorchev, L., Kamenova, P. and Odjakova, M. (2014). The role of plant cell wall proteins in response to salt stress. The Scientific World Journal, 14: 1-9.





Research Articles


How to Cite

Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Potentials of the Extracts and Fraction of the Leaf of Datura metel (Lnn.). (2022). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37(1), 32-40.