Biochemical and Haematological Responses to Chronic Consumption of some Herbalized Nigerian Alcoholic Drinks



biochemical changes, alcoholic beverages, haematological parameters, wistar rat


The unconfirmed perceptions of herbal-based alcoholic beverages having therapeutic, anti-malarial, and aphrodisiac properties have led to a surge in use of these products in many poor nations. Herein, we investigated biochemical and haematological effects of some commonly consumed herbalized alcoholic beverages in Cross River State, Nigeria using rat. Male wistar rats were treated with Action bitters, Alomo bitters, Origin bitters, 1960 bitters, Local gin, and Local gin plus vitamin B-complex, daily at a dose of 2.68 mL/kg body weight. A control group was given distilled water. After 90 days exposure, rats were anaesthetized in chloroform vapour and blood collected via cardiac puncture. Serum biochemical parameters; total protein, albumin, creatinine, and haematological parameters; haemoglobin, red blood cell, packed cell volume, platelet, white blood cell, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocyte and monoctes were measured. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in total protein and albumin of groups that received local gin, and local gin + vitamin B-complex. Also, the creatinine in all the alcohol-treated groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest hepato and nephro-toxicities were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in alcohol-treated groups compared with control group, suggesting haemato-toxicity. The results further showed that Local Gin induced more pronounced deleterious biological effects compared to other tested alcoholic beverages. Overall, the decrease in biochemical and haematological parameters in treatment groups compared with control suggests a probable mode of action and provide a mechanistic insight by which alcoholic beverages induce biochemical and haematological toxicity.


Download data is not yet available.


Adeloye D., Olawole-Isaac A. Auta A., Dewan M. T., Omoyele C., Ezeigwe N., Jacobs W., Mpazanje R. G., Harhay M. O., Alemu W., Adewole I. F. (2019). Epidemiology of harmful use of alcohol in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 45(5), 438-450.

Akanni, E.O. Mabayole, T.O. Oparinde, D.P. (2010). Haematological Characteristics among Alcohol Consumers in Osogbo Metropolis. Research Journal of Medical Science, 4(2), 48-52.

Bellocco R, Pasquali E, Rota M, Bagnardi V, Tramacere I, Scotti L, Pelucchi C, Boffetta P, Corrao G, La Vecchia C. (2012). Alcohol drinking and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results of a meta-analysis. Annals of Oncology, 23(9), 2235–2244.

Chu, Y.C. (2000). Haematological effect of alcohol, long-term ethanol consumption in alcoholics. Alcohol, 24,117-122.

Clarke, T.K., Adams, M.J., Davies, G., Howard, D.M., Hall, L.S. (2017). Padmanabhan S. Genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption and genetic overlap with other health-related traits in UK Biobank (N = 112117). Molecular Psychiatry, 22(10), 1376–1384.

Eyong, E.U, Ikegbulam, N.C, Eteng, M.U. (2008). Haematological changes following administration of alcohol and caffeine in albino wistar rats. Bio-research, 6(1), 290-292.

Ginsberg, H., Olefsky, J., Farquhar, J.W., Reaven, G.M. (2010). Moderate ethanol ingestion and plasma triglyceride levels. A study in normal and hypertriglyceridemic persons. Annals of Internal Medicine, 80(2), 143-149.

Gonzalez-Reimers, E., Quintero-Platt, G., Rodriguez-Rodriguez, E., Martínez-Riera, A., Alvisa-Negrín, J., Santolaria-Fernández, F. (2015). Bone changes in alcoholic liver disease. World Journal of Hepatology, 7(9), 1258-1264.

Harter, D. L., Busnello, F. M., Dibi, R. P., Stein, A. T., Kato, S. K., & Vanin, C. M. D. M. (2013). Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 131, 315-322.

Horai, T., Hishimoto, A., Otsuka, I., Mouri, K., Shimmyo, N., Boku, S., Okishio, N., Sora, I. (2018). A cross-sectional study exploring useful indicators for low bone mineral density in male alcoholic patients. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment, 14, 663-669.

Jaana, L. (2004). Effect of Alcohol Consumption and Acetaldehyde on Blood Cells and Molecules.Pathogenic and Diagnostic Implications. Academic dissertation, University of Tampere, Medical School, Seinajoki Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Hematology and Medical Research Unit. Finland. Pp. 1-79.

Kerner, A., Avizohar, O., Sella, R, Bartha P, Zinder O, Markiewicz W, Ley Y, Gerald J. B. and Aronson D. (2005). Association between elevated liver enzymes and C-reactive protein: possible hepatic contribution to systemic inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 25(1), 193-197.

Kyoko, K.S., Tomoshige, H., Yoshiko, N., Nobuko, H., Takeshi, Y., Ginji, E., Hiroshi, K. (2008). Liver enzymes compared with alcoholicconsumption in predicting the risk of type two diabetes. Diabetes Care, 31(6), 1230-1236.

Lewis, G. F. (2006). Determinants of plasma HDL concentrations and reverse cholesterol transport. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 21(4), 345-352.

Liamis, G.L., Milionis, H.J., Rizos, E.C., Siamopoulos, K.C., Elisaf, M.S. (2000). Alcohol and Alcoholism. International Journal of Pharmacological Science and Drug Research, 35, 612-616.

Mehlig, K., Strabdhagen, E., Svensson, P., Rosengren, A., Toren, K., Thelle, D., Lissner, L. (2014). CetpTaqIB genotype modifies the association between alcohol and coronary heart disease: The intergene case-control study. Alcohol, 48(7), 695-700.

Nahar L, Sarker S.D., Turner A.B. (2007): A review on synthetic and natural steroid dimers. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 14(12), 1349-1370.

Nestel, P.J., Hirsch, E.Z(1965). Mechanism of alcohol- induced hypertriglyceridemia. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 66(3),35-47.

Odey, M. O., Ibor, O. R., Ujong, U. P., Chukwuka, A. V., Andem, A. B. (2019). Modulation of biochemical responses in rats following consumption of some herbalized Nigerian alcoholic drinks. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 22(3), 353-362.

Odey, M. O., U. Udiba, U. U., Adindu, E, A., Enyievi, P. B., Edu, B. C., Eteng, M. U., Uboh, F. E., Emuru, E. O. (2022). Safety evaluation and potential health implications of water from post-remediated lead-polluted areas of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Calabar Journal of Health Sciences, 6(1), 15-23.

O’Keefe, J.H., Bybee, K. A., Lavie, C.J. (2007): Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edgedsword. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 50(11), 1009-1014.

O’Shea, R.S., Dasarathy, S., McCullough, A.J. (2010): Alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology, 51, 307–328

Ruffle, J.K. (2014). Molecular neurobiology of addiction: what's all the (Δ)FosBabout?. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 40(6), 428-437.

Schaeffner, E.S, Kurth, T, de Jong, P.E (2005). Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal dysfunction in apparently healthy men.Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(9), 1048–1053.

Tasduq, S.A, Singh, K, Satti, N.K, Gupta, D.K, Suri, K.A, Johri, R.K. (2006). Terminaliachebula (fruit) prevents liver toxicity caused by sub-chronic administration of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in combination, Human and Experimental Toxicology, 25(3), 111-118

Vasanthi, H.R., Parameswari, R.P., DeLeiris, J., Das, D.K. (2012). Health benefits of wine and alcohol from neuroprotection to heart health. Frontiers in Biosciences, 4(4), 1505-1512.

Venukumar, M.R., Latha, M.S. (2004). Effect of Cosciniumfenestratum on hepatotoxicity in rats, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 42(8), 792-797.

White, S. L, Polkinghorne, K. R, Cass, A, Shaw J. E, Atkins R. C. and Chadban S.J. (2009). Alcohol consumption and 5-year onset of chronic kidney disease: the Australian Diabetic study. Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant, 24(8), 2464–2472.

Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT (2017): Haematological evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogiaagrestisstem. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 3(9), 34-38.



How to Cite

Odey, M. O. ., Ofonime, M. E. ., Ogar, I. ., Iwara, I. A. ., Adindu, E. A. ., Godfrey, C. O., … Emuru, E. O. (2022). Biochemical and Haematological Responses to Chronic Consumption of some Herbalized Nigerian Alcoholic Drinks. Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37(3), 181–187. Retrieved from