Antioxidant and Protective Activities of Aqueous Theobroma cacao Seed Extract against Aluminium-induced Hippocampal Toxicity in Wistar Rats


  • Anita A. Okhah Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria Author
  • Adaze B. Enogieru Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria Author


Aluminium, Neurotoxicity, Neuroprotection, Hippocampus, Theobroma cacao


Aluminium (Al) is a known toxic metal linked to oxidative damage and neurodegeneration. Hence, the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of aqueous Theobroma cacao seed extract (CO) in aluminium chloride-exposed Wistar rats was examined. The study consisted of six (6) groups containing six (6) Wistar rats each. Group A (Control) received 1 ml of distilled water/day. Group B (Al) received 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Al only. Group C received 250 mg/kg BW/day of CO and 100 mg/kg BW of Al. Group D received 500 mg/kg BW of CO and 100 mg/kg BW of Al. Group E received 250 mg/kg BW of CO only. Group F received 500 mg/kg BW of CO only. The administration was via an orogastric tube for 28 days after which the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) neurobehavioral test was conducted. Thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and the hippocampi were harvested for antioxidant and histological evaluations. A significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities, final body weight and neurobehavioural functions were observed in the rats treated with Al only following comparison with the control and CO-treated groups. However, CO protected against these Al-induced effects. Also, several histological alterations were observed in the Al groups, whereas control and CO-treated groups were relatively normal. Taken together, CO had potent antioxidant and protective activities against Al-induced toxicity in the experimental rats.


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How to Cite

Antioxidant and Protective Activities of Aqueous Theobroma cacao Seed Extract against Aluminium-induced Hippocampal Toxicity in Wistar Rats. (2023). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 38(4), 197-205.