Evaluation of Proximate and Phytochemical Constituents of Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill (“Osumada”) Roots



Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill (Pentadiplandraceae) root is an ethnobotanical food spice used traditionally in the management of several disorders. However, the proximate and phytochemical constituents of P. brazzeana roots from Nigeria are not well documented. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the proximate and phytochemical constituents of P. brazzeana roots obtained from Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. Proximate and quantitative phytochemical analysis of P. brazzeana roots were determined using standard procedures. Proximate analysis showed that P. brazzeana roots contained ash (3.27 ± 0.42 %), crude fat (6.87 ± 0.31%), crude fibre (9.41 ± 0.34%), moisture (10.66 ± 0.23%), crude protein (18.00 ± 0.51%) and carbohydrate (51.81 ± 0.82%). Quantitative phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids (0.02 ± 0.01%), saponins (0.41 ± 0.02%), flavonoids (10.14 ± 0.06%), tannins (1.54 ± 0.10 g TAE/100 g) and total phenolic (2.28 ± 0.01 g GAE/100 g) contents. Thus, the study showed that P. brazzeana roots could serve as an important source of nutritional and medicinal compounds. Further studies are recommended to investigate P. brazzeana root as potential source of food supplement and medicine to justify its ethnobotanical applications.


Download data is not yet available.


Aba, P. E., & Asuzu, I. U. (2018). Mechanisms of actions of some bioactive anti-diabetic principles from phytochemicals of medicinal plants: A review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 9(2), 85-96.

Abdulwaliyu, I., Arekemase, S. O., Adudu, J. A., Batari, M. L., Egbule, M. N., & Okoduwa, S. I. R. (2019). Investigation of the medicinal significance of phytic acid as an indispensable anti-nutrient in diseases. Clinical Nutrition Experimental 28, 42-61.

Adetayo, M., Shokunbi, O., Oyelese, A., & Adetayo, A. (2020). In vitro antisickling and sickling-reversal activities of Carica papaya fruit at different stages of ripening: Carica papaya and sickle cell disease. Babcock University Medical Journal (BUMJ), 3(2), 10-18.

Aili Hamzah, A. F., Hamzah, M. H., Che Man, H., Jamali, N. S., Siajam, S. I., & Ismail, M. H. (2021). Recent updates on the conversion of pineapple waste (Ananas comosus) to value-added products, future perspectives and challenges. Agronomy, 11(11), 2221.

Alagbe, J. O., Shittu, M. D., Bamigboye, S. O., & Oluwatobi, A. O. (2019). Proximate and mineral composition of Pentadiplandra brazzeana stems bark. Electronic Research Journal of Engineering, Computer and Applied Sciences, 1(2019), 91-99.

Al-Awwadi, N. A. J. (2017). Review: potential health benefits and scientific review of ginger. Journal of Pharmacognosy Phytotherapy, 9 (7), 111-116.

Anyasor, G. N., Okanlawon, A. A., & Ogunbiyi, B. (2019). Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf extract using in vitro and in vivo inflammation models. Clinical Phytoscience, 5(1), 1-13.

AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edition, Washington D.C., Arlington, V. A., 503- 515.

Asaolu, S. S., Adefemi, O. S., Oyakilome, I. G., Ajibulu, K. E., & Asaolu, M. F. (2012). Proximate and mineral composition of Nigerian leafy vegetables. Journal of Food Research, 1(3), 214.

Bernhoft, A. (2010). A brief review on bioactive compounds in plants. In: Aksel Bernhoft (ed). Bioactive compounds in plants – benefits and risks for man and animals. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Drammensveien 78, NO-0271, Oslo. Pp. 11-17.

Bouba, A., Njintang, N., Foyet, H., Scher, J., Montet, D., & Mbofung, C. (2012). Proximate composition, mineral and vitamin content of some wild plants used as spices in Cameroon. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3(4), 423- 432.

Burkill, H. M. (1985). The useful plants of West Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, 1, 319.

Carbas, B., Machado, N., Oppolzer, D., Ferreira, L., Queiroz, M., Brites, C., Rosa, E. A. S., & Barros, A. I. (2020). Nutrients, antinutrients, phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity of common bean cultivars and their potential for food applications. Antioxidants, 9(2), 186.

Chisom, I. F., Okereke, C., & Okeke, C. (2014). Comparative phytochemical and proximate analyses on Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn and Bombax buonopozense (P) Beauv. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2(2), 162-167.

Cimanga, K. R., Lubiba, N. Z., Makila, B. M. F., Tona, L. G., Kambu, K. O., Vlietinck, A. J., & Pieters, L. (2018). Biological activities of Arredoul Jaune, a phytomedicine based ethanol extract from fresh roots of Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill (Pentadiplandaceae) used as an antidiarrhoeal drug in Kisangani-Democratic Republic of Congo. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(1), 130-139.

Doughari, J. H. (2012). Phytochemicals: extraction methods, basic structures and mode of action as potential chemotherapeutic agents. Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH Open Access Publisher, pp. 1-33

Edeoga, H. O., Okwu, D. E., & Mbaebie, B. O. (2005). Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(7), 685-688.

Edeoga, H. O., Omosun, G., & Uche, L. C. (2006). Chemical composition of Hyptis sauveolens and Ocimum gratissium hybrids from Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(10), 892-895

Ehigie, A. F., Adeleke, G. E., Oladiran, W. A., & Ehigie, L. O. (2019). Screening for rhodanese producing bacterium in freshly pressed cassava effluents of a cassava processing industry channeled to Odo-Oba Stream in Ogbomoso-Nigeria. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(3), 650-656.

Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., Blecker, C., & Attia, H. (2011). Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food Chemistry, 124(2), 411-421.

Eyong, E. U., Agiang, M. A., Atangwho, I. J., Iwara, I. A., Odey, M. O., & Ebong, P. E. (2011). Phytochemicals and micronutrients composition of root and stem bark extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. Journal of Medicine and Medical Science, 2(6), 900-903.

Forouhi, N. G., Krauss, R. M., Taubes, G., & Willett, W. (2018). Dietary fat and cardiometabolic health: evidence, controversies, and consensus for guidance. BMJ, 361. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2139.

Fu, L., Xu, B. T., Xu, X. R., Gan, R. Y., Zhang, Y., Xia, E. Q., & Li, H. B. (2011). Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 62 fruits. Food Chemistry, 129(2), 345-350.

Galasso, C., Gentile, A., Orefice, I., Ianora, A., Bruno, A., Noonan, D. M., ... & Brunet, C. (2019). Microalgal derivatives as potential nutraceutical and food supplements for human health: A focus on cancer prevention and interception. Nutrients, 11(6), 1226

James, C.S. (1995). Analytical chemistry of foods. Springer, New York.

doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-2165-5

Kamtchouing, P., Mbongue Fandio, G. Y., Dimo, T., & Jatsa, H. B. (2002). Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra brazzeana in male rats. Asian Journal of Andrology, 4(4), 299–301.

Kang, J. H., Sung, M. K., Kawada, T., Yoo, H., Kim, Y. K., Kim, J. S., & Yu, R. (2005). Soybean saponins suppress the release of proinflammatory mediators by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Cancer Letters, 230(2), 219-227.

Karim, O. R., Adebanke, B. M., Akintayo, O. A., & Awoyale, W. (2016). Physical, chemical and sensory properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta) - sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) gari. National University of Food Technologies. Ukrainian Journal of Food Science 4(2), 276-289.

Kitamura, S., Morisseau, C., Inceoglu, B., Kamita, S. G., De Nicola, G. R., Nyegue, M., & Hammock, B. D. (2015). Potent natural soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors from Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon: Synthesis, quantification, and measurement of biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One, 10(2), e0117438.

Lawal, A. R., Olayinka, B. U., Murtadha, R. A., Ayinla, A., & Etejere, E. O. (2018). Comparative analysis of phytochemical and proximate composition of Allium sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 26(2), 82-87.

Lee, T. H., Wang, M. J., Chen, P. Y., Wu, T. Y., Wen, W. C., Tsai, F. Y., & Lee, C. K. (2009). Constituents of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula. Journal of Natural Products, 72(11), 1960-1963.

Ly, C., Yockell-Lelievre, J., Ferraro, Z. M., Arnason, J. T., Ferrier, J., & Gruslin, A. (2015). The effects of dietary polyphenols on reproductive health and early development. Human Reproduction Update, 21(2), 228-248.

Murthy, H. N., Yadav, G. G., Dewir, Y. H., & Ibrahim, A. (2020). Phytochemicals and biological activity of desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile). Plants, 10(1), 32.

Ndoye Foe, F. M. C., Tchinang, T. F. K., Nyegue, A. M., Abdou, J. P., Yaya, A. J. G., Tchinda, A. T., Essame, J. O., & Etoa, F. X. (2016). Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oils of four dietary and medicinal plants from Cameroon. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1), 1-12.

Ngbolua, K., Kongobi, N. N., Nzewe, C. T., Ashande, C. M., Inkoto, C. L., Lufulwabo, G. L., Bongo, G. N., & Konga, D. W. (2018). Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill. (Pentadiplandraceae): Chemical screening assessment and a mini-review on its bioactivity and phytochemistry. Journal of Advancement in Medical and Life Sciences, 6(4), 1-5

Nwachukwu, V. A., Udedi, S. C., Ezeonu, F. C., Brai, B. I. C., Ezeanyanaso, C. S., & Elemo, G. N. (2017). Bioactive agents, nutraceuticals potentials, phytochemistry, and food value of Emilia coccinea leaf: a review. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research 4(1), 1-15, doi:10.9734/jocamr/2017/29435

Nyegue, M., Ndoyé, F., AmvamZollo, H., Etoa, F. X., Agnaniet, H., & Menut, C. (2009). Chemical and biological evaluation of essential oil of Pentadiplandra brazzeana (Bail.) roots from Cameroon. Advances in Phytotherapy Research, 91-107.

Nyegue, M. A., Ndoye-Foe, F., Etoa, F. X., Zollo et, P. H. A., & Menut, C. (2014). Study of chemical composition, growth inhibition and antigerminative effect of three essential oils from Cameroon on four Bacillus strains. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 17(6), 1335-1342.

Ogawa, S., & Yazaki, Y. (2018). Tannins from Acacia mearnsii de wild bark: tannin determination and biological activities. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(4), 837.

Ogbonna, O. C., Fadeiye, E. O., & Ikem, R. T. (2018). Blood glucose response on consumption of cassava varieties (Garri) in healthy Nigerian subjects. Journal of Nutrition and Human Health, 2(1), 22-27

Okoduwa, S. I., Umar, I. A., James, D. B., & Inuwa, H. M. (2017). Anti-diabetic potential of Ocimum gratissimum leaf fractions in fortified diet-fed streptozotocin treated rat model of Type-2 diabetes. Medicines, 4(4), 73.

Okonji, R. E., Akinwunmi, K. F., Madu, J. O., Bamidele, F. S., & Funmilola, A. (2014). In Vitro study on α-amylase inhibitory activities of Digitaria exilis, Pentadiplandra brazzeana (Baill) and Monodora myristica. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 8(5), 2306-2313.

Okonji, R. E., Fagbohunka, B. S., Ehigie, L. O., Ayinla, Z. A., & Ojo, O. O. (2017). Physicochemical properties of rhodanese: A cyanide detoxifying enzyme from Pentadiplandra brazzeana (Baill) root. African Journal of Biotechnology, 16(14), 704-711.

Okoro, E. E., Osoniyi, O. R., Jabeen, A., Shams, S., Choudhary, M. I., & Onajobi, F. D. (2019). Anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities of fractions from methanol root extract of Abrus precatorius L. Clinical Phytoscience, 5(1), 1-9.

Oladele, A., Ofodili, E. A. U., & Alade, G. (2021). Proximate and mineral elements composition of three forest fruits sold in Port Harcourt. Nigeria Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 24(11), 1899-1908.

Olayinka, B. U., Ogungbemi, R. F., Abinde, O. O., Lawal, A. R., Abdulrahaman, A. A., & Etejere, E. O. (2019). Proximate and phytochemical compositions of leaf and root of (cattle stick) Carpolobia lutea G. Don. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 23(1), 53-57.

Oleszek, M., & Oleszek, W. (2020). Saponins in Food. In: Xiao, J., Sarker., Asakawa, Y. (eds). Handbook of Dietary Phytochemicals. Springer Singapore. pp. 1-40

Pathy, K. K., Flavien, N. B., Honoré, B. K., Vanhove, W., & Van Damme, P. (2021). Ethnobotanical characterization of medicinal plants used in Kisantu and Mbanza-Ngungu territories, Kongo-Central Province in DR Congo. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 17(1), 1-15.

Pearson, D. (1976). The Chemical analysis of foods, 7th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, London, 7-11.

Qu, G., Chen, J., & Guo, X. (2018). The beneficial and deleterious role of dietary polyphenols on chronic degenerative diseases by regulating gene expression. Bioscience Trends, 12(6), 526–536.

Rodríguez-García, C., Sánchez-Quesada, C., & Gaforio, J. J. (2019). Dietary flavonoids as cancer chemopreventive agents: An updated review of human studies. Antioxidants, 8(5), 137.

Sani, I., Abdulhamid, A., & Bello, F. (2014). Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical composition of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves, stem-bark, root, fruits and seeds. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research, 3(5), 523-526. https://doi.org/10.31254/jsir.2014.3510

Tsopmo, A., Ngnokam, D., Ngamga, D., Ayafor, J. F., & Sterner, O. (1999). Urea derivatives from Pentadiplandra brazzeana. Journal of Natural Products, 62(10), 1435-1436. https://doi/10.1021/np990111f

Wansi, J. D., Sewald, N., Nahar, L., Martin, C., & Sarker, S. D. (2019). Bioactive essential oils from the Cameroonian rain forest: A Review- Part II. Trends in Phytochemical Research, 3(1), 3-52.

Yankah, N., Intiful, F. D., & Tette, E. M. (2020). Comparative study of the nutritional composition of local brown rice, maize (obaatanpa), and millet- a baseline research for varietal complementary feeding. Food Science and Nutrition, 8(6), 2692-2698.

Zainuddin, M. F., Shamsudin, R., Mokhtar, M. N., & Ismail, D. (2014). Physicochemical properties of pineapple plant waste fibers from the leaves and stems of different varieties. BioResources, 9(3), 5311-5324.



How to Cite

Evaluation of Proximate and Phytochemical Constituents of Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill (“Osumada”) Roots. (2022). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37(3), 166-174. https://www.nsbmb.org.ng/journals/index.php/njbmb/article/view/102