Effects of Zidovudine, Aqueous Leaf Extract of Gongronema latifolia and their Combination on some Haematological Indices of Wistar Rats


  • Okonkwo, C. O. Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria Author
  • Iwuagwu C .O. Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria Author https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9702-1283


In this study, the effects of the ethanolic leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium (Utazi) and Zidovudine as well as their combination on some haematological parameters was evaluated. Sixteen (16) Wistar rats were divided into four (4) groups of 4 rats each. The control group (Group A) were given food and water only while the test groups (B, C and D) received 0.05 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract and 0.04 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine, 0.05 mg/kg body weight of extract only, and 0.04 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine only, respectively. The result showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in Red blood cell (RBC) count from 9.98±1.41 in group A to 8.02 ± 0.58, 7.88±0.26 and 7.45±2.74 in groups B, C and D respectively. The white blood cell count (WBC) increased significantly (P<0.05) from 8.03 ± 2.19 in Group A to 10.55 ± 0.78, 16.68 ± 1.74, and 11.06 ± 2.38 in Groups B, C and D respectively. There was a non-significant (P>0.05) decrease in Packed cell volume (PCV) from 39.00 ± 1.15, in Group A to: 38.50 ± 8.54, 38.00± 4.51 and 37.25 ± 2.34 in Groups, B, C and D respectively. For haemoglobin concentration (Hb) there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between groups A and D, however there was significant (P<0.05) increase in Groups B and C when compared to the control as can be seen from the result; 12.97 ± 0.90, 14.20±1.41, 14.03±0.52 and 12.50 ± 0.92 for A, B, C and D respectively. For neutrophil count, we observed a significant (P<0.05) increase in all the treated groups when compared with the control; 5.67 ± 2-32, 18.95 ± 6.13, 23.43±5.83 and 13.50 ± 7.47, for groups A, B, C and D respectively. For lymphocyte count, there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in all the groups as compared to the control; 92-00 ± 1.93, 72.45 ± 8.97, 70.85 ± 5.83 and 83.93 ± 5.78 for Groups A, B, C and D respectively. The result showed that Gongronema latifolium leaf ameliorated the harzadous impact of zidovudine on white blood cells, haemoglobin and neutrophil count but did not improve the PCV and RBC of treated animals. It’s inclusion in meals may also compromise the immune system.


Download data is not yet available.


Akuodor, G. C., Idris-Usman, M. S., Mbahce-Megwas, U. A, Akpan, J. L., Ugwu, T. C., Okoroafor, D. O., Osunkwo, U. A. (2010). Studies on anti-ulcer analgesic and anti-pyretic properties of the ethanolic leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium in rodents. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(5):2316- 2321.

Antai, A. B., Ofem, O. E., Ikpi, D. E., Ukafia, S. and Agiang, E. A. (2009): Phytochemistry and some haematological changes following oral administration of ethanolic root extract of Gongronema latifolium. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Science 24(1): 79-83.

Atawodi (2005): Antioxidant potential of African medical plants. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(2): 128-133.

Broder, S. (2009). The development of antiretroviral therapy and its impact on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Antiviral Research 85(1): 1-2.

Chariot, P., Droqou, I., de Lacroix-Szmania, I., Eliezer-Vanerot, M. C., Chazaud, B., Lombes, A., Schaeffer, A. and Zafrani, E. S. (1999). Zidovudine-induced mitochondrial disorder with massive liver steatosis,myopathy,lactic acidosis, and mitochondrial DNA depletion. Journal of Hepatology 30(1):156-160.

Cheesbrough, M. (2000). District laboratory practice in Tropical countries Part 2 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 434.

Edgar, J. A., Erhard, R., Russel, J. and Molyneux, (2002). Honey from plants containing pyrolizidine alkaloids: a potential threat to health. J. Agric. Food Chemistry 50(10):2719-2730.

Fisher, R. A. (1935). The design of experiments 9th edition. Macmillan, pp. 244.

Http//www.medichecks.com. Acessed September 2014.

Izzedine, H., Launay-Vacher, V., Amyrad, G., Legrand, M. and Deray, G. (2001). Pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in haemodialysis. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 16: 192-193.

Morebise, O., Fatunso, M. A., Makinde, J. M., Olajide, O. A. and Awe, E. O. (2002). Anti-inflammatory property of the leaves of Gongronema latifolium. Phytotherapy Research 16(1):75-77.

Ochei, J. and Kolhatkar, A. (2008). Medical laboratory Sciences.Theory and Practice.Tata Mc Graw Hill,New York, pp. 663-665.

Ogundipe, O. O., Moody, J. O., Akinyemi, T. O., Raman, A. (2003). Hypoglycemic potentials of methanolic extracts of selected plant foods in

alloxandized mice. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 58(3): 1-7.

Ramnik, S. (2003). Medical Laboratory Technology: Method and Interpretations.Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd., New Delhi.

Scheider, C., Rotscheidt, K., Breitmaler, E. (1993). 4 new pregnane glycosides from Gongronema latifolium (Asckepiadaceae). Liebigs Annalen Der chemie. 10:1057-1062.

Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd ed. Sunshine House, Ibadan, Nigeria Spectrum Books Ltd; Screening plants for Bioactive Agents. pp. 134-156.

Sonibare, M. A. and Gbile, R. O. (2008): Ethnomedical survey of anti- asthmatic plants in South Eastern Nigeria. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5(4): 340-345.

Trease, G. E. and Evans, W. E. (1989). Pharmacognosy; A physician’s Guide to Herbal Medicine, 13th edition Balhere, Tindall, London.

Ugochukwu, N. H., Babady, N. E., Cobourne, M., Gasset, S. R. (2003). The effect of Gongronema latifolium extract on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats. Journal of Bioscience 28(1): 1-5.

Ugochukwu, N. H. and Babady, N. E. (2003). Antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium leaves on glucose and glycogen metabolism in livers of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sciences 73(15): 1925-1938.

Weinkove, R. (2005). Zidovudine-induced pure red cell aplasia presenting after 4 years of therapy. AIDS 19 (17):2046-2047.



How to Cite

Effects of Zidovudine, Aqueous Leaf Extract of Gongronema latifolia and their Combination on some Haematological Indices of Wistar Rats. (2014). Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 29(1), 29-34. https://www.nsbmb.org.ng/journals/index.php/njbmb/article/view/307